pymatgen.apps.battery.battery_abc module¶
This module defines the abstract base classes for batteryrelated classes. Regardless of the kind of electrode, conversion or insertion, there are many common definitions and properties, e.g., average voltage, capacity, etc. which can be defined in a general way. The Abc for battery classes implements some of these common definitions to allow sharing of common logic between them.

class
AbstractElectrode
(voltage_pairs: Tuple[pymatgen.apps.battery.battery_abc.AbstractVoltagePair], working_ion_entry: pymatgen.entries.computed_entries.ComputedEntry, framework_formula: str)[source]¶ Bases:
collections.abc.Sequence
,monty.json.MSONable
An Abstract Base Class representing an Electrode. It is essentially a sequence of VoltagePairs. Generally, subclasses only need to implement three abstract properties: voltage_pairs, working_ion and working_ion_entry.
The general concept is that all other battery properties such as capacity, etc. are derived from voltage pairs.
One of the major challenges with representing battery materials is keeping track of the normalization between different entries. For example, one entry might be TiO2 with one unit cell whereas another is LiTi2O4 with two unit cells. When computing battery properties, it is needed to always use a universal reference state otherwise you have normalization errors (e.g., the energy of LiTi2O4 must be divided by two to be compared with TiO2).
For properties such as volume, mass, or mAh transferred within the voltage pair, a universal convention is necessary. AbstractElectrode can query for extrinsic properties of several different AbstractVoltagePairs belonging to a single charge/discharge path and be confident that the normalization is being carried out properly throughout, even if more AbstractVoltagePairs are added later.
The universal normalization is defined by the reduced structural framework of the entries, which is common along the entire charge/discharge path. For example, LiTi2O4 has a reduced structural framework of TiO2. Another example is Li9V6P16O58 which would have a reduced structural framework of V3P8O29. Note that reduced structural frameworks need not be chargebalanced or physical, e.g. V3P8O29 is not chargebalanced, they are just a tool for normalization.
Example: for a LiTi2O4 > TiO2 AbstractVoltagePair, extrinsic quantities like mAh or cell volumes are given per TiO2 formula unit.
Developers implementing a new battery (other than the two general ones already implemented) need to implement a VoltagePair and an Electrode. .. attribute:: voltage_pairs
Objects that represent each voltage step

get_average_voltage
(min_voltage=None, max_voltage=None)[source]¶ Average voltage for path satisfying between a min and max voltage.
 Parameters
min_voltage (float) – The minimum allowable voltage for a given step.
max_voltage (float) – The maximum allowable voltage allowable for a given step.
 Returns
Average voltage in V across the insertion path (a subset of the path can be chosen by the optional arguments)

get_capacity_grav
(min_voltage=None, max_voltage=None, use_overall_normalization=True)[source]¶ Get the gravimetric capacity of the electrode.
 Parameters
min_voltage (float) – The minimum allowable voltage for a given step.
max_voltage (float) – The maximum allowable voltage allowable for a given step.
use_overall_normalization (booL) – If False, normalize by the discharged state of only the voltage pairs matching the voltage criteria. if True, use default normalization of the full electrode path.
 Returns
Gravimetric capacity in mAh/g across the insertion path (a subset of the path can be chosen by the optional arguments).

get_capacity_vol
(min_voltage=None, max_voltage=None, use_overall_normalization=True)[source]¶ Get the volumetric capacity of the electrode.
 Parameters
min_voltage (float) – The minimum allowable voltage for a given step.
max_voltage (float) – The maximum allowable voltage allowable for a given step.
use_overall_normalization (booL) – If False, normalize by the discharged state of only the voltage pairs matching the voltage criteria. if True, use default normalization of the full electrode path.
 Returns
Volumetric capacity in mAh/cc across the insertion path (a subset of the path can be chosen by the optional arguments)

get_energy_density
(min_voltage=None, max_voltage=None, use_overall_normalization=True)[source]¶  Parameters
min_voltage (float) – The minimum allowable voltage for a given step.
max_voltage (float) – The maximum allowable voltage allowable for a given step.
use_overall_normalization (booL) – If False, normalize by the discharged state of only the voltage pairs matching the voltage criteria. if True, use default normalization of the full electrode path.
 Returns
Energy density in Wh/L across the insertion path (a subset of the path can be chosen by the optional arguments).

get_specific_energy
(min_voltage=None, max_voltage=None, use_overall_normalization=True)[source]¶ Returns the specific energy of the battery in mAh/g.
 Parameters
min_voltage (float) – The minimum allowable voltage for a given step.
max_voltage (float) – The maximum allowable voltage allowable for a given step.
use_overall_normalization (booL) – If False, normalize by the discharged state of only the voltage pairs matching the voltage criteria. if True, use default normalization of the full electrode path.
 Returns
Specific energy in Wh/kg across the insertion path (a subset of the path can be chosen by the optional arguments)

get_sub_electrodes
(adjacent_only=True)[source]¶ If this electrode contains multiple voltage steps, then it is possible to use only a subset of the voltage steps to define other electrodes. Must be implemented for each electrode object. :param adjacent_only: Only return electrodes from compounds that are
adjacent on the convex hull, i.e. no electrodes returned will have multiple voltage steps if this is set true
 Returns
A list of Electrode objects

get_summary_dict
(print_subelectrodes=True) → Dict[source]¶ Generate a summary dict.
 Parameters
print_subelectrodes – Also print data on all the possible subelectrodes.
 Returns
A summary of this electrode”s properties in dict format.

property
normalization_mass
[source]¶ Mass used for normalization. This is the mass of the discharged electrode of the last voltage pair.
 Type
Returns

property
normalization_volume
[source]¶ Mass used for normalization. This is the vol of the discharged electrode of the last voltage pair.
 Type
Returns


class
AbstractVoltagePair
(voltage: float, mAh: float, mass_charge: float, mass_discharge: float, vol_charge: float, vol_discharge: float, frac_charge: float, frac_discharge: float, working_ion_entry: pymatgen.entries.computed_entries.ComputedEntry, framework_formula: str)[source]¶ Bases:
monty.json.MSONable
An Abstract Base Class for a Voltage Pair.